The three most commonly used load banks are the resistive, inductive and capacitive load banks. The function of inductive and capacitive bank loads is to build up the loads called reactance found in the air conditioner circuit. What is a reactance? Reactance is a circuit caused by the elements to an opposing current caused by electric or magnetic fields which have been created by a current. It can also be termed as an imaginary component of impendence or the resistance to an air conditioner signals due to a particular frequency.The units for capacitive and inductive reactance are measured in ohm. Inductive reactance works by resisting the change to, current hence causing the circuit current to fall back in voltage. For capacitive reactance, it resists the change to energy by causing the circuit current to lead the voltage.
What are the four load banks?
• Resistive load banks.
This is the most used kind of portable generator and is useful for production of loading for both generators and prime movers. For every kilowatt or horsepower of loads used in a particular generator the amount is equivalent to the loads used in the prime mover by the generator. Therefore the functions of the resistive bank load are to remove energy from the generator’s system i.e.; load bank from generator and generator from the original power.
Also, more power is transferred as a result of the load bank’s operations and waste heat from the coolant. The other energy is lost from the consumption by other accessory devices used together with the generator. How does the load occur? The resistive load arises from the conversion of electrical energy to heat through high powered heat resistance devices such as the grid resistors. In return, the heat produced must be separated from the load bank by air or by water through convection. Resistive load raises real life resistive loads such as the incandescent lights and unity power factor components of magnetic.The commonly used resistive loads use wire resistance with some devices such as the fan and can be moved from one generator to generator in the case where you want to test it. You can also have it built in a wall of a building although it is not often done.
• Inductive load bank.
Inductive load banks also consist of inductive lagging power load and an iron-core reactive element that creates a lagging power in the case where it has been used with a resistive load. When the two are applied together, they produce a power factor of up to 0.8. We can conclude that when 100 KW of the resistive load is provided, it results to 75 kvAr of the inductive load. Some of the functions of inductive load include the simulation of real life mixed commercial loads that consist of lighting, heating, motors and transformers. You can also use resistive-inductive load bank to test the power system since the provided impendence provides currents out of phase with the voltage. This in return enables one to be able to test evaluate the performance of the generator, voltage regulators load tap changers conductors among other equipment.
• Capacitive bank load.
This type of load bank has the same performance and rating with inductive load bank, except for capacitive load bank the leading power factor loads are made, so the reactive power is supplied from the loads to the system, and as a result, the power factor is improved. The loads are capable of releasing electronic or nonlinear loads of computers and UPS industries.
• Electronic load bank.
This is a programmed load bank in either water or air design and is used to “simulate load and provide continuous power current loading on circuits for precision testing.” according to Foxfab.com.